The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Century of Competing Claims to Land, Borders, and Rights

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is one of the world's most enduring and intractable conflicts. It is rooted in competing claims to land, borders, and rights in a region of deep historical and religious significance.

In 1947, the United Nations tried to resolve the conflict by dividing the-then British Mandate of Palestine into separate Arab and Jewish states. The Palestinians rejected the plan, leading to the first Arab-Israeli War in 1948.

srael's victory in the 1948 war led to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians. Since then, Palestinians have gradually been displaced from more territory that they also see as their rightful homeland.

In response to this displacement, Palestinian militant groups have sprung up, sometimes joining but also sometimes in opposition to, Palestinian political groups. Hamas, for example, has both a political and militant wing.

Today, tensions between Israel and Palestinians continue to simmer in East Jerusalem (which Palestinians claim as a future capital), the Gaza Strip (a Palestinian enclave on the Mediterranean Sea), and the West Bank (the main bulk of current-day Palestinian territory that is effectively controlled by Israel).

East Jerusalem is a holy city to both Jews and Muslims. Palestinians claim East Jerusalem as the capital of their future state, while Israel claims the entire city as its capital.

The Gaza Strip is a Palestinian enclave on the Mediterranean Sea. It is under the control of Hamas, an Islamist militant group. Israel and Hamas have fought several wars over the Gaza Strip, most recently in 2021.

The West Bank is the main bulk of current-day Palestinian territory that is effectively controlled by Israel. Israel has built settlements in the West Bank, which are considered illegal by the international community.